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  • Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is quite a new procedure to detect embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. PGD is performed within the IVF procedure for couples with a high risk of transmitting genetic abnormalities to their children.

    Chromosomal abnormalities are the reason why PGD was invented

    PGD procedure was developed to diagnose such abnormalities.

    Generally, chromosomal abnormalities may be classified into the following groups:

    • Structural disorders – loss, displacement, duplication of chromosomes, etc.
    • Quantitative disorders – Patau syndrome, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome.

    The older are both men and women, the higher is the risk of chromosomal disorders. At the age of 30, this risk probability is 1/385, in the age of 40 – 1/63, in 40 – 1/19. For this reason, detection of chromosomal abnormalities is an important stage in pregnancy planning, and modern Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is the only available option to prevent disease transmission to the future children.

    How is PGD procedure performed

    There are two types of PGD: Polar body diagnosis (egg structure) and embryo analysis. The first option gives the information on the number of chromosomes in the egg. Biopsy of embryo cells allows for detecting irregularities in the number of chromosomes in embryo on the 5th day of embryo culture (when it reaches blastocyst stage).

    What is embryo biopsy?

    Usually, PGD is performed on five-days-old embryos created through IVF cycle. Using special tools, a trophectoderm biopsy of all the embryos is carried out to collect the material for further analysis. All embryos are cryo-conservated until the results are obtained.

    Who needs to take PGD as a part of the infertility treatment by IVF method?

    • Couples over 35 y.o.;
    • There are abortions/miscarriages by 12th week in medical history;
    • Couples with multiple failed IVF cycles;
    • Couples presenting chromosomal abnormalities in karyotype.

    Advantages of PGD

    • Only the embryos without abnormalities are selected;
    • It considerably increases the chances to give a birth to a healthy child;
    • Decreases the miscarriage risk;
    • Almost a two times lower risk of multiple pregnancy;
    • Higher efficiency of IVF;
    • Chances to give birth to a child without any complications increases by 30%

    Are there any risks?

    Yes, there are some risks. Foremost there is a risk to accidentally damage the embryo, but in the laboratory, it is less than 0.5%. Also, it is possible that after receiving test results, it will turn out that all the embryos present abnormalities – it happens in approximately 10% of all cases. To perform this type of diagnostics, you can contact professionals who will provide you with a comprehensive consultation about this diagnostic method and perform the high-quality and safe diagnostics of your embryos.

    Accuracy of PGD in PARENS clinic is 95-97%. For this reason, experts recommend undergoing this procedure to the couples from a risk group. It is worth remembering that a timely Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis gives a chance to understand what steps to take next and to be sure about the quality of your embryos.